loro account: What is Nostro Account-Vostro and Loro Account

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Banks feared that when payments for its imports fall due, there would not be enough dollars in Sri Lanka. Banks from partner countries are required to approach an authorized domestic dealer bank for opening the SRVA. When Vostro accounts are used by corresponding banks, the domestic bank can execute transfers, deposits, and withdrawals on behalf of the corresponding bank. In this, a foreign bank acts as an agent providing financial services on behalf of a domestic bank.

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The exchange rate between the currencies of the trading partner countries would be market-determined. Nostro accounts are generally held by a domestic bank in a foreign country . To facilitate ease of doing international trades & businesses banks generally maintain three types of current accounts for the quick transfer of funds in different currencies namely ‘Nostro’, ‘Vostro’ and ‘Loro’. On behalf of India’s growing trade imbalance, this drastic action has been taken. Vostro accounts helped facilitate larger foreign exchange transactions. Authorised banks can open multiple SRV accounts for different banks from the same country.

Vostro account

Transfer from SRVA to Rupee Vostro account of same country is allowed but not vice-versa. This step is part of a sequenced and calibrated path for increased use of the INR in international transactions. AD bank in India can open multiple Special Rupee Vostro Accounts for different banks from the same country. The central bank’s move has come in the wake of increasing pressure on the Indian currency in the wake of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and sanctions by the US and the EU. Therefore, the accounts opened by IndusInd and UCO are Vostro, and the ones opened by Russia’s Sberbank and VTB Bank are Nostro accounts. CAs, experts and businesses can get GST ready with ClearTax GST software & certification course.

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The Exchange Rate between the currencies of the trading partner countries would be market-determined. Also, all major domestic banks have listed their nodal officers to sort out issues faced by exporters under the arrangement. Exchange rate between the currencies of the two trading partner countries will be market determined. A Vostro account will keep Russia’s holdings in the ‘Indian bank’, in ‘Indian rupees’. Now if an Indian trader wants to export goods to Russia, the Vostro account will be reduced and the amount will be credited to the exporter’s account.

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Therefore in literal terminology Nostro means our’s account with you. Nostro accounts are accounts held in foreign currency with a foreign bank by a domestic bank. For example, the State Bank of India’s account with Bank of America is held in dollars.In simple words, if any Indian bank opens an account with any foreign bank it will be called a Nostro account.

  • The AD bank then will seek approval from the RBI with details of the arrangement and subsequent to the approval granted by the RBI, the Special Rupee Vostro account in the Indian AD bank by a German bank shall be opened.
  • The term correspondent banking relationship acts as an intermediary or agent, facilitating wire transfers, conducting business transactions, accepting deposits and gathering documents on behalf of another bank.
  • In interbank transactions, foreign exchange is transferred from one account to another account and from one country to another.
  • In this case, the Vostro Account will be debited, and the amount will be credited to Ram’s a/c, which is the exporter’s account.
  • In this week’s ETBFSI Explains, we decode the SWIFT, Vostro and Nostro accounts that will change the way India trades with the world in the future.

The https://1investing.in/ began using a new procedure for rupee-based foreign trade settlement in July. In the past, countries’ only choice for importing and exporting goods and services was to first settle the payments in a foreign currency. Since the US dollar is the world’s most reserved currency, the majority of trade is conducted in US dollars. The balance in Special Rupee Vostro Account can be repatriated in freely convertible currency and/or currency of the beneficiary trading partner country depending on underlying transaction i.e. for which the account was credited. For example, for import payments through SRVA like any Rupee Vostro account the fund can be remitted to overseas exporter either in freely convertible currency or in domestic currency of the overseas exporter. Now the problem is, both the parties have to bear the conversion rates and market fluctuations in exchange rates, which is detrimental for both parties.

In simple words, if any foreign bank opens an account with an Indian bank in rupees. Vostro accounts are primarily opened by foreign banks to facilitate the easy clearing of their transactions in India. While in essence, it is the same account that is being spoken about, the perspective from which it is being seen matters. In a vostro account, it is the correspondent foreign bank point of view, whereas in a nostro account, it is the point of view of the domestic bank.

So the ‘Nostro Account’ of the Indian bank with its branch/correspondents in USA is said as ‘Our Accounts with You’. In giving greater flexibility to the vostro facility, RBI last November clarified that the rupee balances lying in the accounts can be hedged so that foreign companies can minimize their losses from foreign exchange fluctuations. Also, the central bank has allowed the transfer of balance in one special rupee vostro account to a similar account of another bank from the same country.

“A meeting between loro accountn and Belarusian banks is scheduled this month. The volume of trade with Belarus is much smaller compared to Russia though the country is an import supplier of fertilizer. We can sense the interest of Indian banks after the meeting,” said an industry official. According to the central bank, AD banks in India have been permitted to open rupee Vostro accounts. Accordingly, for settlement of trade transactions with any country, an AD bank in India may open special rupee Vostro accounts of correspondent banks of the partner trading country.

An insight into overseas accounts

Enables one to offer international banking solutions to a customer without opening a bank branch in a foreign nation. An example of such an account would be HSBC vostro account is held by SBI in India. The existing systems thus require maintaining balances and positions in such currencies. As a scratch on accounts, I want to know the answers for the following questions.

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India’s general insurers are looking to set up a larger marine insurance pool to cover the risks of transporting crude oil, edible oil, project machinery and fertiliser from the war-torn Russia-Ukraine region. This is expected to facilitate trade as the West ratchets up sanctions on Russia. Sri Lanka President Ranil Wickremesinghe recently said 2023 would be a “critical year” for the troubled country. Last year’s balance of payments crisis had boiled over into a political turmoil in Sri Lanka. “RBI has given permission for three vostros..The accounts are expected to be functional any day now,” a person aware of the clearance told ET. India and Russia are now exploring to directly trade in rupee-ruble.

For example when XYZ bank of India is maintaining an account with ABC Bank in New York USA in USD when PQR bank of India refers the said account in correspondence with XZY Bank, Now YORK it is said LORO account . For better understanding what is Foreign exchange transaction, we need to understand first what is ‘home currency’ and what is ‘foreign currency’. A Loro account is a combination of an ordinary and a Nostro account. Let us take an example ofa student seeking admission to a university abroad. That particular student has a bank account with Bank of Baroda and the university has an account with Wells Fargo.

This is subject to approval of Reserve Bank as in the case of other such accounts. Confirmation from AD bank that the due diligence has been carried out by AD bank which establishes correspondent banking relationship as per our extant guidelines . This is essentially a bank-to-bank arrangement similar to correspondent banking arrangement. The settlement through Indian Rupees is an additional arrangement to the existing system that uses freely convertible currencies and will work as a complimentary system. The RBI allowed nine Russian banks to open special Vostro accounts to pave the way for any export-import transactions. The Indian banks which have participated in this process One in Uco Bank, one in Sber, one in VTB and 6 with IndusInd Bank.

Other than these, avenues of investments can be mutually agreed between the countries subject to compliance with applicable regulatory and statutory guidelines. I have read Privacy Policy and Terms & Conditions and agree to receive newsletters and other communications on this email ID. As Russia and India are strategically important to each other, this will help facilitate smoother trade.

extant guidelines

Third, AD banks should have good correspondent relationships with banks in partner countries. This account serves as an economic way for small domestic banks to access the financial resources and services of a larger foreign bank. Vostro accounts are maintained in the domestic currency whereas, nostro accounts in foreign currency. It is an integral offshoot of correspondent banking that entails a bank to facilitate wire transfer, conduct business transactions, accept deposits and gather documents on behalf of the other bank. A Vostro account is an account that a domestic bank holds for a foreign bank in the domestic bank’s currency, i.e., rupee.


The American bank concerned will refer to the same account as a Vostro Account. An Indian buyer can easily transmit an invoice made in Indian rupees to a party with a rupee account by using the Vostro Account. It will cut down on conversion costs and volatility in currency exchange rates. As a result, there is no need to pay in US dollars and then have the receiving party convert it into the local currency.

“Small traders will also be able to export and import with other countries in rupees,” the IBA chief added. It aims to facilitate trade in rupee in the wake of sanctions on Russia. Simultaneously, Ram exports some items to a German merchant, for whom he must then be paid. In this case, the Vostro Account will be debited, and the amount will be credited to Ram’s a/c, which is the exporter’s account.

Usefulness of any foreign Currency can be had only if it is converted in to home currency because, foreign currency is not used or acceptable in India if we take example of India. For giving usefulness to any foreign currency the said currency needs to be converted in to the home currency. Geographical boundaries are no more a limitation to interbank transactions with Nostro, Vostro and Loro accounts. ClearTax offers taxation & financial solutions to individuals, businesses, organizations & chartered accountants in India. ClearTax serves 1.5+ Million happy customers, 20000+ CAs & tax experts & 10000+ businesses across India.

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